Your assessment


At the start of your HEAT assessment, you can choose between three different User interface options (basic, flexible, full). In addition, you can choose to run the tool in Feedback mode, which allows you to provide us with feedback at the bottom of every page and also includes a short user survey at the end

You will then first have to provide some information that defines Your assessment ( i.e. your project or scenarios):
  • Is your project about cycling, walking or both?
  • What is time scale and geophraphic scope?
  • Will you assess a single situation or compare two cases?, and
  • What impacts do you want to consider?

The information collected in this first module will determine the data, methodology and assumptions that the tool applies for your assessment.
After this introductory section you will move on to enter data about active travel and the population assessed.

User interface options

Active travel modes

Geographic scale

Check this if you are assessing an infrastructure project, or a specific facility

Comparison and time scale

In a "single case" assessment, you only provide data on the so called "reference case." This is then compared to an implicit "comparison case" of "no walking or cycling."
In a "two cases" assessment you have to specify both cases, the "reference case" and the "comparison case." Typical examples are "before and after" an intervention, or comparisons of alternative "scenarios A and B."
For more guidance on how this selection affects the calculation, see here.
By default, assessments are set to 10 years from the current year. If you would like to calculate impacts over a different period of time, you may adjust reference year, comparison year and assessment time below.


Motorized modes

What are the local traffic conditions?

Data input

Introduction to data inputs

On the following page(s) you will provide the data HEAT needs for the calculations.

Namely data about the volume of active travel you are assessing, about the population you are assessing, and, possibly data about motorized modes as well.

To enter your numbers, HEAT will need to understand a few additional things about your data: start by specifying the source of your data. Provide the unit they come in. (Note that you may have to convert some of your figures to reflect the required unit, for example, to reflect travel "per person, per day"). Depending on the source and type of data that you provide, you may be asked to provide some additional information.
After the travel data, provide information about the population the data applies to: is it from the general population in your study area, or is it a sample of cyclists or pedestrians only? What is the age range of the assessed population? Information about the population size will be collected on a later page.

If you are assessing carbon emissions you will also be asked to provide data about motorized modes.
You will have to specify data for each active mode in each comparison case.

HEAT accomodates the use of multiple data types and units. Pay close attention to how the actual numbers must be entered (e.g. "per person, per day", or "per location, per day".)
Note that the population type entered will serve as guidance to determine the correct population size on a later page.
All units will be converted to minutes and kilometers per person, per day, sometimes applying default values. You can later overwrite these default values in the "Calculation parameters" table. Find out more about unit conversion in HEAT here.

Active modes data

Provide your data for each of the active travel modes selected earlier.

If conducting a two-case assessment, provide information for both cases (note: HEAT will pre-populated some fields to make it easier for you. Adjust these values as needed).

1. Choose a data source you are using (drop down on the left).
2. Specify the data unit or type.
Volume data (middle)
3. Provide the actual amount. Depending on the unit used, you may need to fill out additional input fields .
Population data (right)
5. Specify the population type you are assessing. (note: depending on data source, options may be restricted)
6. Specify the age range of your study population.
7. Population size, taking into account type and age range of your study population, will be collected on a later page.

Motorized modes data

Provide your data for each of the motorized travel modes selected earlier.

To enter your data on the motorized travel modes choose your unit, provide the actual amount, and the type of population it applies to.
All units will be converted to minutes and kilometers, sometimes applying default values. You can overwrite these values in the "Review calculation parameters" module.

Population data

Provide your information about the population you are assessing below.

Population size is a key parameter for your HEAT assessment. How to derive the appropriate population size depends on the spatial scale of your assessment and the type of population you are assessing.

If you are assessing at the country or city level you are typically assessing the “general population” (i.e. all inhabitants, independed of whether they walk or bike). If this is the case and there are population data available for your location, HEAT will display the Total population and use national age distribution data to suggest the Population size to be used in the assessment based on the assessed age range (for each mode and comparison case).
You can overwrite the suggested values. If there are no data available, you need to provide the Population size used for each mode and comparison case.

If you are assessing at a sub-city level, you are typically assessing pedestrians or cyclists directly (i.e. population figures including all inhabitants are not helpful). For these cases you have to provide the Population size used yourself.

Note that the population size should reflect the age range you specified for the assessed modes and comparison cases.
Learn more about population data here.

Data adjustment

Introduction to data adjustment

In this section you can provide some additional information and enable HEAT to adjust the input data you entered earlier, which results in a more accurate assessment.

You will be asked to provide additional information about the active mode(s) that you are assessing. Specifically, this may include more details related to where, when and for what purpose the active travel was undertaken, or which modes it substitutes for.
Which questions are presented depends on the specific features of your assessment. Answer each question for the mode(s) listed.

General adjustments

Proportion excluded
Exclude walking or cycling due to factors unrelated to your assessed intervention or scenario here.
Temporal & spatial adjustment
Adjust your data as necessary to reflect longterm averages. Find out more about data adjustment in HEAT here
Take-up time for active travel demand
Specify in which year of your assessment the "comparison level" of active travel is reached.

Active travel characteristics

Proportion of new trips
What proportion is due to entirely new trips?
Proportion of reassigned trips
Exclude walking or cycling trips that previously used a different route.
Proportion for transport
What proportion is for transport (vs. recreation)?
Proportion shifted from walking
Proportion shifted from cycling
Proportion shifted from running
Proportion shifted from e-biking
Proportion shifted from bike sharing
Proportion shifted from driving
Proportion shifted from public transport
Proportion shifted from car (as driver)
Proportion shifted from car (as passenger)
Proportion shifted from motorcycle
Proportion shifted from local bus
Proportion shifted from light rail
Proportion shifted from train

Active travel characteristics

Proportion “in traffic”
What proportion takes place in traffic (vs. away from major roads, in parks etc.)?
Substitution of physical activity
Is part of the increase (or decrease) in active travel between the reference case and the comparison case resulting in a decrease (or increase) in other forms of physical activity?

Additional parameters

Introduction to additional parameters

On the following page(s) you have the options to modify or complete some of the calculation parameters used in HEAT.

Mortality rates

HEAT uses all-cause mortality rates to specify baseline risks related to physical activty and air pollution.

Note that mortlity rates vary depending on the age range you have selected, which may differ by mode. HEAT automatically uses a national mortality rate corresponding to the selected age range.
You may choose to adjust below value to better reflect the population you are assessing.
Note that the magnitude of impacts, i.e. benefits of physical activity and harms of air pollution, directly depends on the magnitude of the baseline risk. HEAT automatically displays the mortality rates for each mode and comparison case which are adjusted to the corresponding age range assessed for each mode and comparison case.
Learn more about mortality rates here.

Air pollution

HEAT uses background air pollution concentrations to estimate effects on mortality risk from increased exposure to air pollutants while walking or cycling.

The primary pollution indicator is PM2.5 ug/m3. If not available, PM10 concentrations are converted to PM2.5 applying a conversion factor of 0.6.
If city data is not available, HEAT will suggest a country value. If this is also not available, an estimate has to be entered in the PM2.5 concentration used field below.
Learn more about air pollution assessment here.

Fatality rates for crashes

HEAT requires crash fatality rates to calculate impacts from traffic crashes involving pedestrians and cyclists. These rates put the number of pedestrians or cyclists traffic deaths in relation to the total distance travelled by walking or cycling, respectively.

Unfortunately, such data are not widely available. If there are Fatality rate(s) available for your country, HEAT will display the value below, as well as the figures for Road fatalities (i.e. the numerator) and the Corresponding annual amount of walking/cycling (i.e. the exposure) used to calculate it. You can overwrite all these values with your own data as you see fit. The Fatality rate(s) used will be recalculated automatically.
If fatality data are not available, you need to estimate Fatality rate(s) used yourself, either directly, or by providing estimates for Road fatalities (i.e. the numerator) and the Corresponding distance travelled (i.e. the exposure).
For an overview of some fatality rates used in HEAT take a look at this report.

If you don’t feel comfortable estimating a fatality rate, go back to the “Your Assessment: Impacts” section and uncheck “Crash risk.”
Learn more about fatality rates here.

Value of Statistical Life (VSL)

HEAT uses Value of Statistical Life (VSL) to monetize mortality impacts from physical activity, air pollution and crashes.

Country-specific VSL values are derived based on an average VSL value for OECD countries from 2005, by applying a so called benefit-transfer formula. This formula considers the wealth of a country relative to the OECD average, as well as several other economic parameters. It also updates the estimate to reflect 2017 value (the most recent year data is available for).
In HEAT, there are two different approaches available for this benefit-transfer, the HEAT default method, and an alternative approach. The options below allow you to see the formulas and, should you see any need for it, change the parameter values.
Learn more about VSL here.

Investment costs

Investment costs
To calculate a benefit-cost ratio, provide a cost estimate for investments that led to the assessed active travel (in USD).

Economic discounting

Parameter review

Introduction to parameter review

In this section you can review all parameters used for your assessment. If you would like, you can edit default values to better reflect your local settings. The tool also uses background values which are cannot be changed.

Default and background values

The table below provides an overview of the default values used for your assessment. If you would like to use other values, you can edit column "Editable value".

The table below shows the background values that the tool uses for your assessment. These cannot be modified.


Introduction to results

HEAT provides several options for results viewing. On the next page you will see the overall results, or “grand totals”. These sum up the impacts for all active modes and all impact pathways assessed combined. Thereafter you have the option to select, which detailed results displays you would like to see. Results can be summed up by active modes and by pathways, or both.

General results

Detailed results

User survey

User Survey

To finalize your HEAT assessment in "feedback mode", please tell us a bit more about yourself and your experience using the HEAT tool.
This information will help us to better understand your feedback and improve the HEAT tool.
About you
About using HEAT
The following questions refer to the assessment you just conducted with this version of HEAT
About HEAT guidance
The following questions refer to how often you used, and how helpful you found optional instructions or help features while or before using HEAT.
0 = not at all, 10 = very often
0 = not at all, 10 = very often
0 = not at all, 10 = very often
0 = not at all, 10 = very often
0 = not at all, 10 = very often
0 = not at all, 10 = very often
Looking forward
Do you have a specific project ligned up? Is HEAT part of some standard appraisal procedure? Etc.
Are there any particular features that you miss in the tool, that would make it more useful for you?
E.g. are there any particular features missing that are crucial for you?

Results export

Export data

To export the data of your assessment press the download button. A pop-up window will appear, with links to the files produced by HEAT.

To export the data of your assessment press the download button. A pop-up window will appear, with links to the files produced by HEAT.
In addition, all your data, including your feedback will automatically be stored on the HEAT server to inform HEAT development.

Thank you

Thank you for using HEAT, we hope you've enjoyed working with it!

For questions or comments please email to
More information and materials are also available at

Your HEAT team
Thank you very much for sharing your feedback on HEAT with us!
We look forward to offering you an improved tool soon!
Your HEAT team